2.Yuan et. al. (2022) showed IP3R1–GRP75–VDAC1 complex mediates ER stress–mitochondrial oxidative stress and plays an important role in diabetic atrial remodeling. Interestingly, knockout of GRP75 of the mitochondria-associated ER membranes improves ER stress-induced atrial remodeling and reduces atrial fibrillation progression. The electrical mapping system with a multi-electrode array was employed to measure important epicardial electrophysiological parameters, eg, conduction velocity, effective refractory period, absolute inhomogeneity and inhomogeneity index.