Liao et. al. (2021) showed IL-6 mediated Ca2+ handling abnormalities in SP rats early contribute to the development of postoperative atrial fibrillation by inducing CaT alternans and prolonged CaT refractoriness . Interestingly, they also showed IL-6 neutralization normalizes Ca2+ handling abnormalities and alternans in SP rats.

The optical mapping system was used to measure calcium transient and transmembrane potential. OMapScope software was then used to translate these trace recordings into heat maps, eg, activation maps, CaT alternans maps, for further comparisons.